The Turn Of The Century
Electrotherapy Museum
Violet Ray Construction Article

Master Violet Ray, from Mueller Patent


Actual device from patent, "Master M-66".

Eastern Laboratories "Marvel":  Patent and Actual Device


"Master" Resonator Coil, Cross Section "Cesco" Resonator Coil, Cross Section
"Master" Violet Ray Resonator Coil:
Wooden Core, Finished Multilayer Secondary Coil,
Impregnated Coil with Primary Winding
Left:  Bleadon Dun Resonator Coil
Right:  Shelton Resonator Coil
Details of modified Cenco Coil Winder used to make Violet Ray coils.
A small lathe or hand-cranked jig will also work.

To wind Violet Ray Resonator Coils, extra care must be taken to insulate the windings of each layer.  This can be
accomplished by isolating layers with  several sheets of plain paper that will absorb wax or oil when impregnated
afterward.  Coils are wound on wooden or plastic cores, better materials include Phenolic, Bakelite, or Noryl.
Whatever material used, it must be able to withstand temperatures of over 250 degrees for the wax impregnation

Note that each layer of the coil is wound with 32 - 36 AWG wire, and each winding occupies less than .75" width
in the center of the bobbin.  The 2.5" - 4" wide paper used to insulate these layers is to prevent sparking between
individual layers of the coil while in operation.  The final secondary coil consumes a winding space of no more than
roughly .75" diameter x .75" tall in most coils.  Since the core consumes 1/4" or 3/8" of this winding, the actual
distance from the innermost layer and outermost layers of the secondary coil is less than 5/16", in some cases
even less!  Since these coils yield an average output of 1 - 1.5", this puts an enormous strain on the insulation - and
is the real reason that these coils tend to overheat. 

To make a more heavy duty coil, impregnate the coil in a 1:1 ratio of molten beeswax and rosin, melted by induction
stove or a double boiler (NEVER over direct heat, it will cause a flash fire!).  It helps to increase the size of the coil
to prevent over-stressing the insulation.  For example, a 2-3" diameter coil will operate easily for extended periods
of time.  At any rate, apply a small amount of current to the coil while the wax mixture is cooling.  This procedure
also works well with condensers.  By stressing the components while the insulation is cooling, minute air bubbles
are forced out of the interstices by the mechanical actions of the currents flowing through the devices.  It is important
to keep the current low as not to over stress the insulation while it is cooling. 

This procedure of insulation is not as good as an impregnation chamber (as patented by Tesla, this type of device
vacuum impregnates a coil or condenser and then pressurizes it upon cooling to form a completely homogenous
mass void of all air bubbles.  (It's a bit too complicated and highly expensive to explain in this brief article.)


Io, laying next to completed Violet Ray condensers. 

Note the microwave oven capacitor in the back.  This is disassembled to find a large .95 microfarad capacitor
rated for 2000V.  This can be used to assemble smaller capacitors from .03 - 1.5 microfarad generally used with
Violet Ray devices.  Capacitors may be formed around dowels and allowed to boil in molten wax. When cooled, they
form a coil-conforming unit as seen to the right.  The whole process is messy and time-consuming, like most of the
"Violet Ray" processes!   The convenience lies in the fact that the plastic films used in microwave oven capacitors is
more durable than the original waxed paper used in antique machines.  Also, microwave oven capacitors
vary in size corresponding exactly to the various size condensers as used by Renulife, Master, Shelton, Bleadun Dun,
etc.  It is curious to note that while modern capacitors may work for Violet Ray devices, the old waxed paper
condensers seem to work better.   The old style condensers had large surface areas and because of the way they
were formed also acted in part as inductors.  The large tin or lead plates were slow to cool on their own, and
because they were combined with a primary made from copper  (of the resonator coil)  they helped to transfer the heat from the primary coil to the condenser plates, preserving the insulation of the secondary coil from overheating.

Interrupter, Top View

Interrupter, Side View

Small Interrupter Components:
Bottom Contact Springs, Threaded Rod,
.1875 Tungsten Contact brazed to 2-56 bolt.
Magnet Coils of various designs.

Magnet Coils do not need to be insulated with wax, but do need to be insulated with paper to prevent arc-overs
on the sides of the coil.  The winding can be made with any gage wire, 21 - 32 AWG are the most practical.  The
only requirement is a core built of soft iron wires or transformer steel, and enough windings to produce the
required inductance and to limit the total current consumed by the system.  A coil that consumes from 20W to
1A at 110V is generally sufficient.  A 3.25" long coil wound with 32 AWG wire on a 1/2" steel core would require
about 250 turns per layer and from 20-25 layers depending on the amount of current desired.

While the interrupters can be of any design, the main requirement is the use of tungsten contacts and tempered brass or bronze or for the lower vibrating contact spring.  Silver or platinum contacts should not be used, as they
are prone to sticking.  Tungsten welding rods can be cut with a diamond saw and press-fit into brass rods or screws
if tungsten contacts cannot be found.  For small coils, 1/8" - 3/16" diameter tungsten works well.  For larger coils,
1/4" or 5/16" tungsten works the best.  2% thoriated tungsten may also be used in place of pure tungsten; tungsten
carbide however cannot be used.

Slightly larger form of Apparatus, with externally connected resonator coil.
Used to produce larger sparks 2 - 4" in length or greater.  Coil consumes 1 ampere at 110V, 
Tungsten contacts are .25" diameter.

Jeff Behary's  Universal Violet Ray Testing Apparatus.  Patent Pending.
Used to test all components of Violet Ray devices, and to find exact resonance of any coil.

The 3" Diameter Coil wound in the box to the left will yield sparks in excess of 4.5" with a medium sized
"Violet Ray" circuit.  The coil is heavily embedded in a mixture of beeswax and rosin.




"Kicking Coil" Violet Ray Circuit